The Americans embarked on a journey to streamline the English language by making spelling more straightforward. They achieved this by removing redundant letters like “u,” excess consonants, and superfluous “e”s, transforming diphthongs into single vowels, and reordering the “e” and “r” combinations at the end of words. This linguistic endeavor was driven by a genuine desire to enhance written communication.
The divergence between American and British English began shortly after the United States gained independence from Great Britain. Noah Webster played a pivotal role in shaping this distinct American English dialect. His approach was influenced by Benjamin Franklin’s belief that those who lack spelling knowledge are the best spellers, emphasizing the importance of phonetic and logical spellings.
In 1783, Webster published “An Essay on the Necessity, Advantages, and Practicability of Reforming the Mode of Spelling, and of Rendering the Orthography of Words Correspondent to the Pronunciation.” This essay served as an appendix to his “Grammatical Institute of the English Language.” Later that year, he transformed this academic work into a practical reference with the release of the first edition of the “American Spelling Book.” It quickly gained popularity, surpassing its predecessor, Dilworth’s “Aby-sel-pha,” and remained widely used for over a century, eventually adopting the title “Webster’s Elementary Spelling Book” in 1829.
Noah Webster’s influence extended beyond classrooms when he published his first dictionary in 1806. In 1828, he released the groundbreaking “American Dictionary of the English Language,” which incorporated many of the simplified spellings that have become standard in modern American English. Notable changes included eliminating the silent “u” (e.g., “color” instead of “color”), removing unnecessary double consonants (e.g., “jeweler” instead of “jeweller”), and rearranging “re” to “er” (e.g., “theater” instead of “theatre”).
While Webster introduced several unconventional spellings, some faded into obscurity, like the omission of the final, silent “e” in words such as “determin” instead of “determine.” He also altered “thumb” to “thum,” “island” to “iland,” and “leopard” to “lepord.” However, these unconventional spellings remained in his dictionaries long after his passing.
In the 1870s, both the American Philological Association (APA) and the International Convention for the Amendment of English Orthography revisited Webster’s mission. This collaborative effort involved individuals from both England and the United States, including prominent figures like Lord Tennyson, Charles Darwin, Sir J.A.H. Murray, and Sir John Lubbock. In 1883, they presented various proposals to simplify English spelling.
The American Psychological Association (APA) later released its own list in 1886, drawing from Webster’s ideas but featuring different spellings for approximately 3,500 words, categorized under ten sections. By 1921, H.L. Mencken had identified 18 significant distinctions between English and American orthography, highlighting the widespread adoption of these spelling changes.
Notable revisions included the elimination of unnecessary “u” (e.g., “armor” for “armour”), the simplification of double consonants (e.g., “counselor” for “counsellor”), the reduction of redundant “e”s (e.g., “asphalt” for “asphalte”), and the transition from “re” to “er” (e.g., “center” for “centre”). Other alterations encompassed the omission of “u” following “a” or “o,” as in “balk” (not “baulk”) and “mustache” (not “moustache”).
Diphthongs and compound consonants were simplified, replacing “ae” with “a” (e.g., “anemia” instead of “anæmia”) and “plough” with “plow.” The spelling of various words shifted, such as “naught” to “aught” and “slug” to “slig.” Additionally, “e” changed to “i” (e.g., “inquire” instead of “enquire”), “y” transformed into “a,” “ia,” or “i” (e.g., “baritone” for “barytone” and “pajamas” for “pyjamas”), and “k” was substituted for “c” (e.g., “skeptic” for “sceptic”). Several “c”s and “z”s became “ss,” resulting in changes like “defense” (formerly “defence”) and “advertisement” (formerly “advertizement”).
Webster’s Vision of American Linguistic Independence
Noah Webster, an iconic figure in American history, is best known for his ambitious mission to transform the English language as it was spoken and written in the United States during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. His quest for linguistic reform was driven by a profound desire to simplify the complexities of English spelling and establish a distinct American identity in language.
At the heart of Webster’s linguistic mission was his deep concern for the inconsistencies and obstacles presented by English spelling. He observed that these linguistic challenges hindered learners, both young and old. Webster passionately believed that American classrooms should not be filled solely with British textbooks. Instead, he envisioned an American English that was free from the linguistic constraints of its British counterpart.
In the preface of his Speller, Webster wrote, “To diffuse a uniformity and purity of language in America, to destroy the provincial prejudices that originate in the trifling differences of dialect, is the most ardent wish of the author.” This statement encapsulated his determination to create a linguistic landscape that was uniquely American, where language would reflect the spoken word of the people.
Webster’s Impact on Copyright Laws
Webster’s influence extended beyond spelling and pronunciation. He recognized the importance of protecting authors’ rights and intellectual property. He believed that Americans should have their textbooks and that robust copyright laws were essential to support the growth of American literature. His advocacy for copyright laws played a pivotal role in shaping American publishing and literary practices.
Noah Webster’s contributions to American English were far-reaching and enduring. His most renowned works, including the “American Spelling Book” and the “American Dictionary of the English Language” (1828; 2nd ed., 1840), emphasized the principle that spelling, grammar, and usage should be based upon the living, spoken language rather than on artificial rules. Webster’s dictionaries reflected this principle, contributing to the dignity and vitality of American English.
Webster’s reforms left a lasting legacy, with many of his simplified spellings becoming standard in American English. Notable changes included the elimination of silent letters (e.g., “color” instead of “colour”), the reduction of redundant letters (e.g., “jeweler” for “jeweller”), and the rearrangement of letter combinations (e.g., “theater” for “theatre”).
Pros of Noah Webster’s Influence on American English
- One of the most significant advantages of Noah Webster’s influence on American English is the standardization and simplification of spelling. Webster’s efforts aimed to make English more phonetic and logical, which greatly benefited learners and contributed to consistent spelling practices.
- Webster’s mission fostered linguistic independence for America. By advocating for American textbooks and distinct English language resources, he helped establish a unique American identity in language, separate from British English.
- Webster’s dictionaries and educational materials played a pivotal role in shaping American culture. They promoted a sense of national pride and identity, reinforcing the idea that America was a distinct and vibrant nation.
- Noah Webster’s works, such as his speller and dictionary, were widely used in American classrooms. They provided valuable educational tools that enhanced literacy and communication skills among generations of Americans.
- Many of Webster’s spelling reforms have endured and become standard in modern American English. Words like “color” instead of “colour” and “theater” instead of “theatre” reflect his lasting impact on the language.
Cons of Noah Webster’s Influence on American English
- Webster’s reforms created a degree of fragmentation between American and British English. While he aimed to simplify spelling, it led to discrepancies between the two dialects, making it challenging for English speakers on both sides of the Atlantic.
- Webster’s proposed changes faced significant resistance and controversy, even within America. Prominent figures like Washington Irving and William Cullen Bryant opposed some of his spelling reforms, highlighting the divisive nature of his linguistic mission.
- Despite his efforts, not all of Webster’s proposed changes found widespread acceptance. Some of his unconventional spellings and linguistic alterations did not endure in American English and gradually faded from use.
- Webster’s initial attempts to promote his simplified spellings were met with skepticism and reluctance. It took time for his ideas to gain traction, and many of his reforms faced opposition.
- Language evolution is a complex process influenced by various factors beyond spelling. While Webster’s reforms addressed some issues, they could not fully control the natural evolution of language, leading to ongoing linguistic changes.
His legacy is synonymous with the quest for linguistic independence, forging a distinct American identity in language and culture. Through standardization, simplification, and contributions to education, Webster left an indelible mark on American society. Despite initial resistance and ongoing linguistic evolution, his vision of an American language that stood apart from British English remains a testament to the power of linguistic influence in shaping a nation.